Thursday, January 31, 2013

The Story of the Havasupai People

I Am the Grand Canyon: The Story of the Havasupai People
The Story of the Havasupai People
 (Native American History and Culture)
This book tells the story of the Havasupai, who were among the first group of Native Americans to arrive in North America some 20,000 years ago. The author of this book, Stephen Hirst and his wife lived with the Havasupai people for six years. Having gotten as close inside their life, beliefs, and lore as any outsiders ever could, Hirst gives a compelling account of the Havasupai people and their struggle to recover nearly 200,000 acres of ancestral land from the government, which was taken from them in the nineteenth century.

Running Horse

I'm starting a new feature on the website to highlight art that is either inspired by Native Americans or created by Native Americans. My mother was an artist, and she loved Native American art in all its forms, so it feels appropriate to honor that creative spirit, both hers, and theirs. 

This first image is my own Native American-inspired digital art. It was inspired by a photo I found while searching through the Library of Congress' online image catalog. The photo is circa 1899 and is described as a "Sioux man wearing feathered headdress." It is titled, Running Horse. You can click on the title that appears beneath the image to be taken to the original LOC image.

Running Horse Sioux Native American

This is just the first of what I hope will be many art pieces to be shared here--and not just my own. I'm planning to focus mostly on Native American-created art pieces, more than anything else. This piece is just something I was inspired to create today, so I thought I would share it.

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Native American Encylcopedia

I recently discovered a wonderful page on Facebook for the website called the Native American Encyclopedia. I am following their page and have just subscribed to their newsletter as well. I wanted to share this website because it is a wonderful resource for bits of Native American History, photos, art, culture, news, biographies and more. 

At NAE, their goal is to "honor our elders, inspire our youth, document our history and share our culture." The website is Native owned and operated. I am greatly enjoying their Facebook postings, photos, and articles. I will be exploring much more of their website. Just click on their logo, below, to visit Native American Encyclopedia website.

Native American Encyclopedia Website

You can also visit and Like their Facebook page by clicking on the following link:

Saturday, January 26, 2013

Native Origins of 28 State Names

Did you know that twenty-eight of the states in the U.S. owe the origin of their name to American Indians? Here are a few examples.

  • Indiana: Means land of Indians.
  • Kansas: A Sioux word for "south wind people."
  • Michigan: from Chippewa words, mici and gama, meaning "great water," after the lake of the same name.
  • Ohio: Iroquois word meaning "fine or good river."
These are just a few examples. To see the full list of the twenty-eight states, click on the link below, which will take you to the  American Indian Source website.

You may want to poke around their website as well; there are some good educational resources there, and some good information can be found in the Reflections Magazine area as well.

Friday, January 25, 2013

Prayer for a Newborn

This poem was written by Carolyne Gould, my mother, and the creator of Native History Magazine.

Prayer for a Newborn

May your eyes see the beauty of Mother Earth
May your ears hear the music of life and the sounds of laughter.
May your mouth always speak truth, presented with a kind heart.
May your heart always be full of joy
May your hands one day grasp the hands of your own grandchildren.
May your arms always welcome friends and family.
May your feet always walk a straight path.
And if your feet should ever stray from your path,
may Creator always lead you home.

© Carolyne Gould--Poem and Photograph--All Rights Reserved

History of the Haudenosaunee

History of the Haudenosaunee
(Resource Category: History/Culture)

EDITOR'S NOTE: During a United Nations conference on indigenous rights, held in Geneva, Switzerland in 1977, representatives of the Haudenosaunee made a public presentation regarding their history and their place in the world. There are 2 parts to this article located on another website. Part 1 enables you to learn a little about the Haudenosaunee's view of themselves and their place in the world. Part 2 describes the effects of the economy that was created with the arrival in mass, of Europeans to the North American continent.

Understanding the great changes brought through colonization is necessary to understanding the history of all Native peoples, and these lengthy articles are incredibly helpful in promoting and furthering that understanding. 

Clicking on either of the links below will take you to the full articles.

For more online information on the Haudenosnaunee, we recommend students take a virtual tour of a Mohawk village through the New York State Museum. Dioramas in this virtual tour depict life in a Mohawk Iroquois village in about 1600. The website presents scenes from the museum's dioramas about village life and agriculture. You'll even find instructions on how to build a longhouse.

Native American Oral Traditions and Archaeological Myths

Historians and archaeologists are quick to debunk oral traditions the world over as "myths" with no relationship to scientific fact. Working on a research paper, Itztli Ehecatl has compared Native American oral traditions with archaeological and anthropological findings. Ehecati demonstrates that oral traditions confirm events as long ago as 250 million years -- debunking several "myths" held by the mainstream scientific community. This article is not only thought-provoking, but would make an excellent topic for discussion among high-school students.

This article is quite lengthy, but definitely worth the read. Please click on the link below, which will take you directly to the article, which is on Ehecat's Mexica Uprising website.

Native American Oral Traditions and Archaeological Myths


Essays on Native Americans

There is a fine collection of archived essays related to Native Americans available for download on the website of the Southern Partisan Reader, the Institute of Southern History, Culture, and Governance. For their full list of Native American-related articles, please click on the following link:

All of their essays are in PDF format and can be downloaded for free. Some articles we recommend include the following.
  • How Lincoln's Army 'Liberated' the Indians
  • The U.S. and the Crime of Genocide Against Native Americans
  • A Thousand Lies: The Native American
The SPR has an impressive collection of other archived essays as well, on topics ranging from Abraham Lincoln, to Martin Luther King, to Terrorism, and the World Wars.

Tribal Names and Their Meanings

EDITOR'S NOTE: It is an unfortunate fact that most of the names native tribes are known by today were actually words given to those tribes by their enemies. It was not the name the tribe gave themselves. For example, the word "Iroquois" is a French variation of an Abenaki word which meant "rattlesnake." The term is used to represent the six aboriginal nations who united to form a confederacy. The result was what some people call "The Iroquois Confederacy." The correct designation should be Haudenosaunee, or the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. This "article" is a list of most commonly known tribal names and their meanings

The following list is in alphabetical order. Where known, the self-identifying name or names of the tribe or nation is listed in parentheses. Following the names are definitions of the meanings of those names. Please notify Native History Magazine of any needed corrections, clarifications, or additions. Research continues and the information will be updated as needed.

Abenaki (Abnaki, Alnonba) --- Those living at the sunrise (In the East, near coast)
Achomawi --- River
Acolapissa --- Those who listen and see
Adai (Nateo)
Ahtena --- Ice People
Akwesasne --- Land where the partridge "drums"
Alabama (Alibamu) --- I clear the thicket
Aleut (Alutiiq) ---
Anadarko (Nadaco) ---
Anishinibeg aka Chippewa and Ojibwe or Objibwa ---
Apache (Dine, Dineh, Tinde, Inde) --- Enemy (A Zuni word)
Apalachicola --- People of the other side
Apalachee --- People of the other side
Arapahoe (Inunaina or Atsina) ---
Arikara --- Horns or elk people, or corn eaters
Assiniboin (Hohe) --- Ones who cook using stones (ojibwa word)
Atakapa --- Man Eater
Athapaskan (Dene) ---
Atikamekw --- White fish
Atsina aka Gros Ventre (Haaninin) White clay people
Atsugewi --- Hat Creek Indians
Avoyel --- People of the rocks
Aztec (Nahuatl, Nahua) ---
Bannock (Panaiti) ---
Bayogoula --- People of the bayou
Bidai --- Brushwood (A Caddo word)
Blackfoot (Piegan, Peigan, Nitsi-Tapi, Sarcee)
Blood (Kainai or Kainaiwa) ---
Brule --- Burned thighs, also burned wood (skin description)
Caddo (Natchitoches, also Adai, Hasinai, Kadohodacho)--- True chiefs
Cayuga --- Place locusts were taken out, people at the mucky land
Cayuse --- Stones or rocks (A French-Canadian word)
Catawba (Esaw) ---
Chakchiuma --- Red crawfish people
Chehalis --- Sand
Cherokee (Ani-Yun-Wiya)--- Cave people ( A Choctaw word), people of different speech (Creek word)
Chetco --- Close to the mouth of the stream
Cheyenne (Dzi-Tsi-Stas) --- Red talkers (Dakota word)
Chickahominy --- Hominy people
Chickamauga --- Dwelling place of the chief (A Creek word)
Chippewa aka Ojibwa (Anishinabeg) ---
Chipwyan --- Pointed skins (A Cree word)
Chitimacha --- They have cooking vessels
Chontal --- Stranger (Nahuatl word)
Choula --- Fox
Chowanoc --- People at the south
Chumash --- People who make the shell bead money
Clakamas (Guithlakimas) ---
Clallam (S'Klallam, Nusklaim, Tlalem) --- Strong people
Clatsop --- Dried salmon
Cocopah (Xawitt Kunyavaei) --- River people
Coeur D'Alene (Skitswish) ---
Comanche (Detsanayuka, Kotsoteka, Nermernuh, Noconi) --- Anyone who wants to fight me all the time (ute word)
Coushatta (Kopano, Quevenes) ---
Cowichan (Khowutzun) --- Basking in the sun that warms your back or warm land
Cree (Kenistenoag, Iyiniwok) ---
Creek (Muskogee, Abihika, Abeika, Hitchit)
Crow --- Crow, sparrowhawk, bird people
Dakota --- Friend or ally
Deleware aka Lenni-Lenape (Wampanoag, Munsee, Unami, Unalachitgo)
Dine --- The Apaches' word for themselves
Erie --- Log tail or cat people (Iroquoian word)
Eskimo (Inuit, Inupiat, Inuvialuit, Yupik) ---
Fox (Mesquaki) --- Red earth people
Git' Lissums --- People of the Lissums
Gitksan --- People of the Northern Skena
Gros Ventre (Atsina, in the prairie region; Hidatsa, in the Missouri area) --- Big bellies, one who cooks with a stone, cooks by roasting
Hach Winik --- True people
Han --- Those who live along the river
Haudenosaunee (Hotinonshonni, Ongwanosionni) --- People of the Long House, We of the Extended Lodge
Havasupai (Suppai) --- People of the blue-green water
Hiute --- Bowmen
Honniasont --- Wearing something around the neck
Hopi (Hopitu, Hopitu Shinumu, Moqui, Hapeka) --- Peaceful ones or well-mannered people
Houma --- Red
Huchnom --- Mountain people
Hunkpapa --- Campers at the opening of the circle
Hupa --- Trinity River
Huron (Wendat, Wyandot) --- Ruffian, head of a boar (French)
Hwal'bay aka Hualapai --- People of the tall pines
Ihanktonwan --- Dwellers at the end (Ihanktonwana - little dwellers at the end)
Iowa (Pahodja) --- Sleepy ones (Dakota word)
Iroquois --- Real adders, rattlesnake, (See Haudenosaunee)
Jatibonicu --- People of the great sacred high waters (First spelling)
Jatibonuco --- Great people of the sacred high waters (Second spelling)
Jicaque --- Ancient person (Nahuatl word)
Jicarilla (Tinde) --- Little basket weaver (Spanish word)
Kainai --- Many chiefs
Kakwchak Porcupine people
Kan-hatki --- White earth
Kanienkahaka --- People of the place of flint
Kanza aka Kansa --- People of the south wind
Karok --- Upstream
Kato --- Lake
Kawchottine --- People of the great hares
Ketsei --- Going in wet sand
Kickapoo (Kiwigapawa) --- He stands about
Kiowa (Kwuda, Tepda, Tepkinago) --- Principal people
Klallam --- Strong people
Klamath (Eukshikni-Maklaks, Auksni) --- People of the lake
Kickitat (Qwulhwaipum) ---
Kootenai (Kuronoqa, Kutenai, Ansanka) ---
Kotsoteka --- Buffalo eaters
Kutcha-kutchin --- Those who live on the flats
Kwuda --- People coming out
Lakota --- Friend or ally
Latgawa --- Those living in the uplands
Lenni Lenape --- Genuine men
Lillooet --- Wild onion
Lipan (Naizhan) --- Warriors of the mountains
Lumbee (Cheraw) ---
Machapunga --- Bad dust
Mahican aka Mohican, Mohegan --- Wolf
Maucioa (Pipatsji) ---
Makah (Kwenetchechat) --- Cape people
Maliseet --- Broken talkers
Mandan (Numakaki, Metutahanke) ---
Massachuset --- At the hills
Mdewankantonwan --- Dwellers of the spirit lake
Menominee --- Wild rice men
Miami (Twightwis, twahitwa, Wayatanoke) --- People on the peninsula, cry of the crane, pigeon
Michigamea --- Great water
Mi'kmaq aka Micmac --- family, friend, turtle
Miniconjou --- Planters by water
Missouri --- Great Muddy, people with wooden canoes
Moapa (Moapariats) --- Mosquito creek people
Moatokni --- Southerners
Modoc aka Mohave (Tzinamaa, Ahamakav) --- Southerners
Mohave aka Modoc --- Three mountains
Mohawk (Kanienkahaka) --- Possessors of the flint, coward or man eater (Abenaki words)
Mohegan aka Mahican, Mohican --- Wolf
Moneton --- Big water people
Munsee (Minasinink) --- At the place where the stones are gathered together
Nahane --- People of the west
Narragansett --- People of the small point
Nanticoke --- People of the tidewaters
Natsit-Kutchin --- Those who live off the flats
Navajo --- Cultivated field in an arroyo (Tewa word)
Nez Perce (Neemeepoo, Kamuinu, Sahaptin) ---
Nipmuck --- Freshwater fishing place
Nisga'a (Git'Lissums) --- People of the Nass River
Nokoni --- Those who turn back
Nooksack --- Mountain men
Nootka --- Along the coast
Ogallala (Okandanda) --- Scatters their own
Ojibwa --- To roast till puckered up
Okanago (Isonkuaili) ---
Okelousa --- Blackwater
Okmulgee --- Where water boils up
Omaha --- Upstream people or people going against the current
Oneida --- Aa boulder standing up, or the people of the standing stone
Onondaga --- People on top of the hills
Opata --- Hostile people (Pima word)
Osage (Wakon, Wazhazhe Pahatsi) ---
Ottawa --- To trade
Otto (Chewayray) --- Lechers
Pahodja --- Dusty ones
Paiute (Numa) ---
Pakiutlema --- People of the gap
Pamunkey --- Rising upland
Pantch-Pinunkansh --- Men altogether red
Papagos (Tohono-Odham, Akchin) --- Desert people, the bean people
Papinashuash --- The ones who like to laugh
Pascagoula --- Bread people
Passamaquoddy (Peskedemakddi) --- Plenty of pollock (pollock is a fish)
Paugusset --- Where the narrows open out
Pawnee (Pariki, Chahiksichahiks, Awah) --- Horn people, look like wolves, men of men,
Penateka --- Honey eaters
Pennacook --- Down hill
Penobscot (Pannawanbskek) --- people of the forks on the white rocks, the descending ledge, of the stone place
Pensacola --- Hair people
Peoria --- Carrys a pack on his back
Pequot --- Fox people, destroyers
Piegan --- Scabby robes
Piekuakamit --- The ones from the flat lake
Pikani --- Poor robe
Pilthlako --- Big swamp
Pima (A'atam) --- River people
Pojoaque --- Drinking place
Potawatomi --- People of the place of fire, keepers of the fire, fire people
Powhatan --- Falls in a current of water
Pshwanwapam --- Stony ground
Puyallup --- Shadow
Quahadi --- Antelope
Quapaw (Ouaguapas) --- Downstream people
Quinnipiac --- Long water country
Red River Metis (Slotas) ---
Sac aka Sauk (Meshkwakihug) --- People of the yellow earth, people of the outlet
Salish (Okinagan) --- Flatheads
Sans Arc (Itazipco) --- Without bows (French)
Sarcee (Tsuu-T'ina) ---
Schaghticoke --- At the river forks
Sekani --- dwellers on the rocks
Seminole --- Separatist, runaways, peninsula people
Seneca --- Keepers of the Western Door, Place of stone, people of the standing rock, Great hill people
Serrano (Cowangachm, Mohineyam) ---
Shawnee --- South or southerners
Shoshone --- Snake
Sihasapa Sioux --- Blackfoot
Siksika --- Blackfoot
Sioux --- Snake (French)
Sisitonwan --- Dwellers of the fish ground
Skokomish (Twana) --- River people
Susquehanna (Susquehannock) ---
Taino --- We, the good people
Takelma --- Those living along the river
Tanima --- Liver eaters
Tangipahoa --- Corn gatherers
Tantawats --- Southern men
Tatsanottine --- People of the copper water
Tawakoni --- River bend among red hills
Tejas --- Friendly
Tenawa --- Downstream
Tennuth-Ketchin --- Middle people
Teton --- People of the Mountains (French)
Tewa --- Moccasins
Thlingchadinne --- Dog-flank people
Tinde --- Dwellers of the prairie
Titonwan --- Dwellers of the plains
Tonawanda --- Confluent stream
Tonkawa (Tonkaweya, Titskanwatich) --- They all stay together, the most human of people
Tsattine --- Lives among the beavers
Tsetsaut --- People of the interior
Tsimshian --- People of the river
Tsuu t'ina --- Great amount of people
Tubatulabal --- Pinenut eaters (Shoshone word)
Tuscarora (Skarure) --- Hemp gatherers, shirt wearing people
Two Kettle (Oohenonpa) --- Two boilings
Unalachtgo --- Tidewater people
Ute (Noochi) ---
Vunta-Ketchin --- Those who live among the lakes
Wahpekute --- Shooters in the leaves
Wahpetonwan --- Dwellers among the leaves
Wailaki --- North language
Wakokai --- Blue heron breeding place
Walapai --- Pine tree people
Wallawalla --- Little river
Wampanoag (Pokanoket) --- Eastern people
Wappo --- Brave, couragous
Waptailmin --- People of the narrow river
Wasco --- Cup, people who have the cup
Wichita (Kitikiti'sh) --- Big arbor (Choctaw word), raccoon eyes
Winnebago --- Filthy water people
Wiwohka --- Roaring water
Wyandot --- People of the peninsula
Yakama --- Runaway, the pregnant people, people of the narrows
Yamparika --- Root eaters
Yavapai --- (Mohave Apache) People of the sun, crooked mouth people
Yoncalla ---
Yuchi --- Located yonder
Yuki --- Stranger
Yuma (Chisa) ---
Yurok --- Downstream
Zuni (Ashiwi, Ashiwani) ---

US Tribes Map

Teaching Young Children About Native Americans

Squamish Nation
In classrooms across the United States, many educators are striving to present accurate information to their students about American Indians. A very popular choice has been the use of a book called "Brother Eagle, Sister Sky," (with words of Chief Seattle of the Squamish Nation), and which on the surface presents a fairly acurrate image of native culture. Although there is a lesson to be learned in this book, it may not be the one you wanted to teach.

Unfortunately, the illustrated children's book, "Brother Eagle, Sister Sky," has a major problem that not all educators may spot and which can result in continuing the stereotypical image of American Indians. Promoting stereotypes is not what education should be about.

The book uses words by Chief Seattle, who was a member of the Squamish tribe that lived in the the coastal areas of the Northwest, in what is now British Columbia. The illustrations, although wonderfully drawn, show the attire of Plains Indians and the tipis used by Plains tribes rather than the homes and clothing of the Squamish.

While the premise and purpose of the book is positive, a lack of knowledge on the part of the illustrator and publishers has allowed the sterotypical image of American Indians to be perpetuated. Not all American Indians wore fringed buckskin. Not all American Indians lived in tipis, or grass huts. The arts, culture and living conditions of the Squamish and other northwestern tribes is as different from the Plains tribes as the Plains tribes differ from the Southeastern Woodland tribes. If you have this book in your classroom or home, I don't suggest you throw it out; but, be sure the child that reads it is aware of what is wrong with the illustrations, even if it means gluing a small informational notice inside the front cover.

For more information on the web regarding teaching children about Native Americans, I suggest a 1996 ERIC Digest by Debbie Reese. A Pueblo Indian, Reese specializes in early childhood education and provides some very useful tools for educators, whether those educators are teachers in public schools or parents in the home. Visit Teaching Young Children About Native Americans for more information.

The Squamish Nation

The people describe themselves thus: "The Squamish Nation is comprised of Salish peoples who are descendants of the aboriginal peoples who lived in the present day Greater Vancouver area; Gibson's landing and Squamish River watershed. The Squamish Nation have occupied and governed their territory since beyond recorded history." A visit to the "About Us" page will lead you to information on the Coast Salish, the importance of the Longhouse in Salish culture and some Squamish history. Be sure to check out the photograph of the traditional Squamish Longhouse.

The Squamish Nation, (once called the Squamish Band), is made up of 16 Squamish/Salish-speaking tribes from several different Indian Reserves in Canada:

  •     Ustlawn I.R. #1 (Mission)
  •     Ch'ch'Elxwikw I.R. #1 (Seymour)
  •     Homulchsen I.R. #5 (Capilano)
  •     Senakw I.R. #6 (Kitsilano)
  •     Skowishin I.R. #7
  •     Poyam I.R. #9
  •     Cheakamus I.R. #11
  •     Yookwitz I.R. #12
  •     Poquiosin I.R. #13
  •     Waiwakum I.R. #14 (Brackendale)
  •     Seaichem I.R. #16
  •     Kowtain I.R #17
  •     Stawamus I.R. #24
  •     Chekwelp I.R. #26
  •     Sxaaltxw I.R. #27 (Shelter Island)
  •     K'ik'elxen I.R. #28 (Port Mellon)

The image of the Thunderbird that accompanies this article was created by Stan Joseph Jr. The Squamish Nation has used this as their logo since 1981. Like much native art, there is symbolism in every part of the design. See the Squamish Nation website for more information on their logo.

Message to a Missionary

Message to a Missionary...By Red Jacket, a Seneca, 1805
EDITOR'S NOTE: In 1805, a Christian minister went to speak to the Seneca tribe. Following the minister's oratory, during which time all natives present listened quietly, Otetani, then the Chief of the Seneca tribe, made an oration of his own to the minister. Otetani was was born in 1758 and was called Red Jacket because he sported a bright red coat that was given to him by the British during the American Revolution. His title for the tribe was Sagoyewatha. Selected as the main spokesperson for the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, he later became a friend of George Washington. His speech was recorded and printed in 1805.

Red Jacket Message to a Missionary
It was the will of the Great Spirit that we should meet together this day. He orders all things and has given us a fine day for our council. He has taken His garment from before the sun and caused it to shine with brightness upon us. Our eyes are opened that we see clearly; our ears are unstopped that we have been able to hear distinctly the words you have spoken. For all these favors we thank the Great Spirit, and Him only.

Brother, this council fire was kindled by you. It was at your request that we came together at this time. We have listened with attention to what you have said. You requested us to speak our minds freely. This gives us great joy; for we now consider that we stand upright before you and can speak what we think. All have heard your voice and all speak to you now as one man. Our minds are agreed.

Brother, you say you want an answer to your talk before you leave this place. It is right you should have one, as you are a great distance from home and we do not wish to detain you. But first we will look back a little and tell you what our fathers have told us and what we have heard from the white people.

Brother, listen to what we say. There was a time when our forefathers owned this great island. Their seats extended from the rising to the setting sun. The Great Spirit had made it for the use of Indians. He had created the buffalo, the deer, and other animals for food. He had made the bear and the beaver. Their skins served us for clothing. He had scattered them over the country and taught us how to take them. He had caused the earth to produce corn for bread. All this He had done for His red children because He loved them. If we had some disputes about our hunting-ground they were generally settled without the shedding of much blood.

But an evil day came upon us. Your forefathers crossed the great water and landed on this island. Their numbers were small. They found friends and not enemies. They told us they had fled from their own country for fear of wicked men and had come here to enjoy their religion. They asked for a small seat. We took pity of them, granted their request, and they sat down among us. We gave them corn and meat; they gave us poison in return.

The white people, brother, had now found our country. Tidings were carried back and more came among us. Yet we did not fear them. We took them to be friends. They called us brothers. We believed them and gave them a larger seat. At length their numbers had greatly increased. They wanted more land; they wanted our country. Our eyes were opened and our minds became uneasy. Wars took place. Indians were hired to fight against Indians, and many of our people were destroyed. They also brought strong liquor among us. It was strong and powerful, and has slain thousands.

Brother, our seats were once larger and yours were small. You have now become a great people, and we have scarcely a place left to spread our blankets. You have got our country, but are not satisfied; you want to force your religion upon us.

Brother, continue to listen. You say that you are sent to instruct us how to worship the Great Spirit agreeably to His mind; and, if we do not take hold of the religion which you white people teach we shall be unhappy hereafter. You say that you are right and we are lost. How do we know this is true? We understand that your religion is written in a Book. If it was intended for us, as well as you, why has not the Great Spirit given to us, and not only to us, but why did He not give to our forefathers the knowledge of that Book, with the means of understanding when to believe, being so often deceived by the white people?

Brother, you say there is but one way to worship and serve the Great Spirit. If there is but one religion, why do you white people differ so much about it? Why not all agreed, as you can all read the Book?

Brother, we do not understand these things. We are told that your religion was given to your forefathers and has been handed down from father to son. We also have a religion which was given to our forefathers and has been handed down to us, their children. We worship in that way. It teaches us to be thankful for all the favors we receive, to love each other, and to be united. We never quarrel about religion.

Brother, the Great Spirit has made us all, but He has made a great difference between His white and His red children. He has given us different complexions and different customs. To you He has given the arts. To these He has not opened our eyes. We know these things to be true. Since He has made so great a difference between us in other things, why may we not conclude that He has given us a different religion according to our understanding? The Great Spirit does right. He knows what is best for His children; we are satisfied.

Brother, we do not wish to destroy your religion or take it from you. We only want to enjoy our own.

Brother, you say you have not come to get our land or our money, but to enlighten our minds. I will not tell you that I have been at your meetings and saw you collect money from the meeting. I can not tell what this money was intended for, but suppose that it was for your minister; and, if we should conform to your way of thinking, perhaps you may want some from us.

Brother, we are told that you have been preaching to the white people in this place. These people are our neighbors. We are acquainted with them. We will wait a little while and see what effect your preaching has upon them. If we find it does them good, makes them honest, and less disposed to cheat Indians, we will then consider again of what you have said.

Brother, you have now heard our answer to your talk, and this is all we have to say at present. As we are going to part, we will come and take you by the hand, and hope the Great Spirit will protect you on your journey and return you safe to your friends.

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Investigating the First Thanksgiving Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

You Are the Historian:
Investigating the First Thanksgiving 

This highly informative resource was created by the staff of Plimoth Plantation. Through the website, students can play the part of Dancing Shoes, a modern-day Wampanoag Indian, and Sara, whose ancestor was Remember Allerton, one of the original colonists. Because this website can be extremely busy through the Thanksgiving holiday season, they have provided a method for downloading the program to your hardrive so you can show it to the class later. Teaching elements include:
  • A letter written by colonist wrote about the 1621 feast day provides primary-source evidence of what happened.
  • Information on how the Wampanoag lived, and celebrated at various seasons of the year.
  • The facts versus the myths of Thanksgiving.
  • How Plimoth colonists prepared for their part of the celebration.
Investigating the First Thanksgiving

Trial of Standing Bear Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

The Trial of Standing Bear

(Ponca - Intermediate Level)
This lesson plan is geared toward students in grade 8 and covers history, social studies and science components. The trial of Standing Bear was the first time Native Americans were "legally" recognized as having the rights of citizens under the constitution. (Although citizenship was not actually granted until the 1920s.) Students are asked to research the case with the overall objective of understanding the effects of Indian removal on the people themselves and the consequences of the European concept of Manifest Destiny. Other objectives include student awareness of:

  • The purpose and economic incentives associated with westward expansion including accounts of the removal of Indians and the Cherokees "Trail of Tears."
  • The character and lasting consequences of Reconstruction, in terms of the development of federal Indian policy and the Plains wars with American Indians and the relationship to agricultural development.
  • Between fact and opinion in historical narratives and stories
  • The different historical points of view on historical events and the context in which the historical statements were made.
  • President Andrew Jackson's defiance of a Supreme Court decision when he continued with his Indian removal policy.
Trial of Standing Bear

"This hand is not the color of yours, but if I prick it, the blood will flow, and I shall feel pain.
The blood is of the same color as yours. God made me, and I am a man."
~ Standing Bear

Maps of Indian Territory Dawes Act Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

Teaching with Documents:
Maps of Indian Territory, The Dawes Act, and Will Rogers' Enrollment

(Multi-Tribal - Elementary Level)
Another lesson plan sponsored by the United States National Archives and Records Administration. Perhaps nothing changed the face of Federal Indian policy and contributed more to the genocide of tribal identity than the Dawes Act. Resources include:

  • The Dawes Act or General Allotment Act of 1887. U.S. Statutes at Large 24:388-91
  • Maps of Indian Territory in 1885 and 1891.
  • Will Rogers' Enrollment Case File


National Museum of the American Indian Lesson Plans

The National Museum of the American Indian offers a variety of lesson plans developed by the museum's education staff, as well as Native community members. Their teaching and learning materials offer rich Native perspectives on the history and contemporary life of a variety of Native tribes. Their lessons can be tailored to many different age levels/grades. To view their list of available downloadable lesson plans, simply click on the link below.

Many of their materials are also available in print form, and a Publications Order Form can be found on that page as well.

Native American Indians Lesson Plan

Lewis and Clark Expedition Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

Teaching with Documents:
The Lewis and Clark Expedition 

(Multi-Tribal - Elementary Level)
Sponsored by the United States National Archives and Records Administration, known as NARA, original documents provide insight to both the Louisiana Purchase and the expedition. This lesson correlates to the National History Standards. Items provided include:

  • President Thomas Jefferson's confidential message to Congress concerning relations with the Indians
  • Message of President Thomas Jefferson laying before the Senate the conventions with France for the cession of the province of Louisiana to the United States
  • Message of President Thomas Jefferson concerning the cession of the province of Louisiana
  • Multiple teaching activities
Lewis and Clark Expedition Lesson Plan

Intrigue of the Past Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

Intrigue of the Past: North Carolina's First Peoples

(North Carolina Multi-Tribe History - Elementary and Intermedicate Level)
Multiple Lesson plans can be found at this site. In addition to pre-Columbian peoples, the lesson plans include information on current tribes in North Carolina: Coharie, Eastern Band of Cherokee, Haliwa-Saponi, Indians of Person County, Lumbee, Meherrin, and Waccamaw-Siouan. Lessons are geared toward the 4th through 8th grades. Materials will vary according to the lesson plan chosen. Site is hosted by the University of North Carolina.

Native American Coweeta Townhouse

Indian LIFE Lesson Plan

Lesson Plan Resource
Click on the Lesson Plan title to view the full lesson plan at its source.

Indian Life (A Learning Game)
By Janice Freeman

(Multi-Tribal - Elementary Level)
A unique game designed to help the students learn the basics of Indian values -- That the well being of the tribe is more important than that of the individual. Conservation of natural resources, and protection of the earth is important. Male and female children have distinct roles and learn different skills. In Indian LIFE, players try to become skilled hunters and gatherers, store up food, and learn the culture of their tribe. The game is geared toward grades 5-6 social studies students. Originally designed for California students, the game should adapt to any geographical area or tribal focus. Objectives for students include being able to answer the following questions:

What kind of foods did the people of a particular tribe eat?
What skills did the young people learn?
What knowledge was passed down from older to younger people?
What activities took up much of the people's time?

Native American Indian Hunter

Native American History and Culture

EDITOR'S NOTE: Because there are literally thousands of books on Native American History available through libraries and stores, choosing the best ones can be difficult. In this article we outline history books that we feel are helpful for both individuals and teachers. A brief description will help you know if a particular book will be useful to you. Each book title links to a book product on Amazon, in case you would like to read more about the book, and/or make a purchase.

Black Elk Speaks (Play)
Black Elk Speaks Nicholas Black Elk
From the Publisher: Named one of the ten best spiritual books of the twentieth century by Philip Zaleski of Harper San Francisco, Black Elk Speaks is the acclaimed story of Lakota visionary and healer Nicholas Black Elk (1863-1950) and his people during the momentous, twilight years of the nineteenth century. Black Elk grew up in a time when white settlers were invading the Lakota homeland, decimating buffalo herds and threatening to extinguish the Lakotas' way of life. Black Elk and other Lakotas fought back, a dogged resistance that resulted in a remarkable victory at the Little Bighorn and an unspeakable tragedy at Wounded Knee.

Beautifully told through the celebrated poet and writer John G. Neihardt, Black Elk Speaks offers much more than a life story. Black Elk's profound and arresting religious visions of the unity of humanity and the world around him have transformed his account into a venerated spiritual classic. Whether appreciated as a collaborative autobiography, a history of a Native American nation, or an enduring spiritual testament for all humankind, Black Elk Speaks is unforgettable. 

Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870
Many Tender Ties Women in Fur Trade Society
Beginning with the founding of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1670, the fur trade dominated the development of the Canadian West. In this book the fur trade is examined not {only} as an economic activity, but as a social and cultural complex that continued for nearly two centuries. The author traces the development of a mutual economic dependency between Indian and European traders that evolved into a significant cultural exchange as well. Marriages of fur traders to Indian women created bonds that helped advance trade relations (Publisher's note). The author also considers the role of white women in this society. Bibliography. Index

Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Roles as Trappers, Hunters, and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson Bay, 1660-1870
Indians in the Fur Trade Their Roles as Trappers Hunters and Middlemen
Indians in the Fur Trade makes extensive use of previously unpublished Hudson's Bay Company archival materials and other available data to reconstruct the cultural geography of the West at the time of early contact, illustrating many of the rapid cultural transformations with maps and diagrams. Now with a new introduction and an update on sources, it will continue to be of great use to students and scholars of Native and Canadian as well as United States history.

Native American Non-Fiction for Youth

There are few text books devoted entirely to the subject of American Indians that are geared toward young people. The resource books listed here are non-fiction and geared to providing accurate American Indian information for students grades K -12. Each book title links to a book product on Amazon, in case you would like to read more about the book, and/or make a purchase.

Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village 1868
Daily Life in a Plains Indian Village-Book
The School Library Journal says: Gr 4-7 - This oversized volume offers many details on the Plains Indians in the 1860s, presented in an attractive and inviting format. Each double-page spread covers one aspect of daily life, such as setting up a tipi or preparing for battle. The author presents short paragraphs of fascinating information accompanied by visuals that explain even more than the text. Full-color and black-and-white illustrations include maps, historical photographs, and paintings, but the majority are photo reenactments featuring Native Americans wearing and using authentic items and demonstrating the ways of their ancestors. A useful glossary, a time line, and a list of museums and historical sites to visit conclude the volume. In spite of a layout that is occasionally confusing, this would make an interesting addition to any collection.-Darcy Schild, Schwegler Elementary School, Lawrence, KS Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.

Children's Literature says: Many beautiful, color photos of real people, places and things help make this large-format nonfiction book an inviting way to learn about Plains Indian culture. After briefly establishing who the Plains Indians were and where they have lived, the lively text introduces us to the extended family of a Northern Cheyenne warrior, Real Bird, located in Montana in 1868. Focusing on this fictitious family of Real Bird, his parents, two wives and four children, twenty brief chapters show and tell us about various aspects of family life, including setting up a tipi, women's crafts, medicine and leisure time. An index, timeline, glossary, maps and list of places to visit are included. 1999, Clarion. Ages 7 up. Reviewer: Gisela Jernigan.

Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri: Sioux, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows (Civilization of the American Indian Series)
Five Indian Tribes of the  Upper Missour: Sioux, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows
A firsthand account by a fur trader who married an Assiniboine woman and lived among various tribes from 1833 to 1858. This book is appropriate for high school students and many adults will glean much information from this "primary" source.

Native American Architecture

We have previously posted photos of Native American Dwellings and Native American Tipis. In this post we would like to share with you photos that highlight the unique beauty of Native American Architecture. Many of the photos we post are sourced from the Library of Congress, Edward S. Curtis Collection. Some photos have different sources. Click on each photo's title to be taken to its source.

A Corner of Zuni Edward S Curtis

Hopi Architecture Edward S Curtis

Laguna Architecture Edward S Curtis

North Pueblo at Taos Edward S Curtis

Native American Dwellings

These are photos of Native American Dwellings. We previously posted photos of Native American Tipis, but wanted to share other types of dwellings as well. Many of the photos we post are sourced from the Library of Congress, Edward S. Curtis Collection. Some photos have different sources. Click on each photo's title to be taken to its source.

Cahuilla House in the Desert, California Edward S Curtis

Chemehuevi House Edward S Curtis

A Mat House - Skokomish Edward S Curtis

Pima Ki [primitive home] Edward S Curtis

Wichita Grass-House Edward S Curtis

Native American Tipis

These are photos of Native American Indian dwellings, commonly known as Tipis. Many of the photos we post are sourced from the Library of Congress, Edward S. Curtis Collection. Some photos have different sources. Click on each photo's title to be taken to its source.

A Chipewyan Tipi Among the Aspens Edward S Curtis

Atsina Camp Scene Edward S Curtis

Blackfoot Tipis Edward S Curtis

Cree Tipis Edward S Curtis

Painted Lodges Piegan Edward S Curtis

A Little Native American History

A Little Native American History

This article includes a short history of Indians in North America identifying the major groups. Written by the editor of Native History Magazine, the article includes links to images of original maps from the 16th and 17th centuries. Just click on the link (above) to view this article on Carolyne's Genealogy Helper.

Basic Territorial Distribution of Tribes

EDITOR'S NOTE: The history of the Americas did not begin in 1492. By the time Christopher Columbus arrived in what he thought was a group of islands off the coast of India, the land from what is now Alaska,  south to the tip of the South American continent, was already inhabited --- and had been for at least 10,000 years.

{{PD-1923}} – published before 1923 and public domain in the US.

For some time, anthropologists have concluded that Native Americans are of Asiatic or Mongoloid descent, having arrived on the continents across a land bridge from Asia. There are also some anthropologists and archaeologists that believe mankind developed in the Americans and then used the land bridge to populate the rest of the world. For the purpose of this web site, we will focus on the fact that the Americas were populated before Lief Erikson or Columbus arrived and leave the "who came first" question to others.

Note: Many maps listed in this article are linked to the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia Libraries who maintain full copyright to the images. The URL for each map has been incorporated into this document under the guidelines of the Hargrett Library, to whom we are grateful for providing these educational tools.

When explorers realized a "New World" had been found, there were more than 600 tribes spread through the area now designated the continental United States. Communication between tribes was difficult or, in some cases, impossible because more than 300 distinctly different languages were in use. The population at the time of "discovery" is extremely underestimated at around one million, with most of the natives living along or near the eastern seaboard.

    The "New World" - 1665 - The New World as drawn in 1665. The border images, which include cities, towns, and inhabitants provide a glimpse of the natives during that period.

    North America - 1710 - This map was prepared in 1710 by the Royal Society of London. On all these maps, areas occupied by native tribes can be identified.

The so-called Woodland Tribes populated the area from coastal Maine and northeastern Canada to Florida and the gulf coast of modern-day Texas. The eastern, or Woodland, tribes included what are called the Five Civilized Tribes: Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole; and the Iroquois confederacy which includes Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Mohawk, and Seneca. The latter group was later joined by the Tuscarora.

    Northern Colonies in 1710 - Prepared for King George to show British lands including New Foundland, New Scotland, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Carolina. Also depicts a portion of the Louisiana area.

    Southern Colonies in 1755 - Map of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland with part of New Jersey; from a London magazine published in July 1755.

    Southeastern U.S. area - 1625 - A map of Spanish Florida in 1625, covering an area up to the Virginia colony area.

Plains and Prairies

The tribes living in the area of the plains and prairies of North America included the Comanche and Sioux of movie fame. But scores of other tribes also lived in the area encompassing the central or, Midwest, of the continent from above the Canadian border and south into Mexico.The most recognizable tribe names include: Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Cree; the Lakota, Dakota, Gros Ventre, Hidatsa, Santee, and eastern division Souix; Osage, Otoe, and Pawnee as well as the Kiowa and Lipan Apache. Some tribes in this group are now only remembered by the place names given to geographical areas such as Omaha, Iowa, Kansa(s), and Missouri.

    United States - 1783 - The "United States of North America" in 1783, including the territories of France and Spain. Designates areas occupied by the Souix tribes and the Chippewa as well as other tribes.
The Southwest

The Navaho, Apache, and Yaqui tribes migrated over the years to the Southwest where they occupied territory among the Pima, Hopi, Papago, and Pueblo Indians. Some of the oldest known remains of civilization on the continent can be found in this area.

    Unites States - 1783 - The "Unites States of North America" in 1783, including the territories of France and Spain. Includes the southwestern area of the continent.

The Northwest/Plateau

In the Northwest, (also called the Plateau region) mountains, lakes and passes bear the names of native tribes such as Chinook, Cowichan, Flathead, Klamath, Nez Perce, Shasta, Tillamook, and Tlingit, among others. A ceremony called Potlatch by Native Americans of the area evolved into the present-day "pot luck."

    United States - 1854 - Prepared as part of planned transportation routes, this 1854 map points out areas occupied by the native tribes and nations.

The Westcoast/Great Basin Area

Despite Balboa's discovery of the Pacific Ocean, the coastal region of California, (extending into present-day Colorado, Utah and northern parts of Arizona) was home to the Bannock, Jicarilla Apache, Mohave, Nez Perce, Paiute, Ute, Shoshone, Yuma and at least 25 other tribes before the Spanish arrived on the scene. (See map of "United States - 1854" under "The Northwest").